Due to the fact that I have been asked soooo many times ‘What’s Herzegovina, Where is that, Ah, Bosnia, are you still in the war??’, I was obliged to write something for you all….
For the foreigners:
Herzegovina is in the South-East Europe, i.e.Balkan, continent Earth.
We are not in the war.
Since many of the self-declared educated people don’t know the fact that Herzegovina is not the same as Bosnia, I’m presenting the history of Herzegovina!
In the early Middle Ages, the territory of modern Bosnia and Herzegovina was divided into many smaller more or less independent territories. Herzegovina encompasses the regions then known as the Land of Hum or Zahumlje and Travunija, through the late Middle Ages belonging to the Serbian kings of the Nemanjić dynasty. The westernmost parts of Herzegovina belonged to the Kingdom of Croatia until its union with Kingdom of Hungary in 1102. Bosnian Ban Stjepan II Kotromanić and King Tvrtko I Kotromanić adjoined these regions to the Bosnian state in the 14th century.
Following the weakening of the Bosnian crown after the death of Tvrtko I, powerful noblemen of the Bosnian Kosača family, Grand Duke Sandalj Hranić and his nephew, Herzog Stjepan Vukčić, ruled the Hum region independently, only nominally recognizing the overlordship of the Bosnian kings. In a document sent to Frederick III on January 20, 1448, Bosnian duke Stjepan Vukčić Kosača called himself Herzog (duke) of Saint Sava, lord of Hum and Primorje, great duke of the Bosnian kingdom and so the lands he controlled became (much later) known as Herzog’s lands or Herzegovina.
In 1482, the lands of Herzog Stjepan’s successors were occupied by Ottoman forces. In the Ottoman Empire, Herzegovina was organized as a county (sanjak) within the province (pashaluk) of Bosnia. From 1833 to 1851, Herzegovina was a separate pashaluk ruled by vizier Ali-paša Rizvanbegović. After his death, the pashaluks of Bosnia and Herzegovina were merged. The new joint entity was after 1853 commonly referred to as Bosnia and Herzegovina. Herzegovinian Serbs and Croats actively participated in the Montenegrin efforts to liberate them and to that end, they frequently rose in rebellion against the Ottoman rule.
In 1878, Herzegovina, along with Bosnia, was occupied by Austria-Hungary, only nominally remaining under Ottoman rule. This caused great resentment among its populace which resisted the invaders in small flare-ups of rebellious activity that ended in 1882.
In 1908, Austria-Hungary annexed the province, leading to the Bosnian Crisis, an international dispute that almost started a world war. The assassination of the Archduke Francis Ferdinand came as a result of the resentment of the Serbs of Bosnia and Herzegovina against Austro-Hungarian rule.
In 1918, Herzegovina became a part of the newly formed Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes (later renamed Kingdom of Yugoslavia). In 1941 Herzegovina fell once again under the rule of a Croatian state, Independent State of Croatia. From 1941 to 1945, Herzegovina was a battle ground for conflicts between Croatian Ustaše, Serbian Chetniks, and the pan-Yugoslav Partisans. In 1945, Bosnia and Herzegovina became one of the republics of SFR Yugoslavia. It remained so until the breakup of Yugoslavia in the early 1990s.
Pashaluk of Herzegovina
The pashaluk originally started as a sanjak of the Ottoman Empire founded in 1462 with its seat in Foča. The first sanjak-beg of Herzegovina was Hamza-beg. The seat of the sanjak was later moved to Pljevlja (Taslidža). The Sanjak of Herzegovina was part of the Eyalet of Rumelia and later part of the Pashaluk of Bosnia. In 1833, the Sanjak of Herzegovina was separated from the Pashaluk of Bosnia and was transformed into a pashaluk. In 1833, Ali-paša Rizvanbegović, a native from Herzegovina, became the semi-independent ruler (vizier) of the newly formed pashaluk. After his death in 1851, the Pashaluk of Herzegovina was abolished and its territory was merged with the Pashaluk of Bosnia forming new entity known as Bosnia and Herzegovina.