Objavio: danijela88 | Kolovoz 10, 2010

Bosnia and Herzegovina

Objavio: danijela88 | Kolovoz 10, 2010

Customs for Christmas Eve and Christmas (Herzegovina)

The original text is in a dialect specific to Herzegovina, so this translation cannot be as good as that text. It was made only to bring our customs closer to the people who don’t know our language.

In the morning of the Christmas Eve master of the house would bring yule-log in front of the house. Then he would cut out a splinter from a yule-log and put it into the field. Every house used to have three yule-logs, which master of the house would bring into the house saying: “I wish you all happy Christmas Eve”, while one of the women would sprinkle him with wheat and holy water. He would put yule-logs on the hearth, two side by side and the third one over those two. Then he would cut one of them and sprinkled it with wine and that kind of wheat he wanted to have the most that year.
On the fire of that yule-logs people would put brick-kiln and Christmas sweet bread. The yule-log that was cut into before would be saved and they would put it on fire on the New Years Eve. The ashes of two yule-logs, which would be left to burn out, would be thrown into the field. Tomorrow morning people would go to the mass. After they would return, they would have lunch. The sweet bread would be put on the table first, then pot with wheat with three candles in it. The candle would be lighted with the fire from the yule-log and they would all say: “In a good time, in the name of Jesus, which lighted, it lighted, which went out, it went out. All of that in the name of Jesus, in a good time”
After the lunch candles would be put out with the piece of sweet bread dipped into the wine, with the words: “As the candle puts out, so let malice and enormity goes too“. That piece of bread would be given to the kids, so they don’t get sore throat, to the chicken so they give more eggs or to the sheep. It was believed that the one, who stands across the candle which turns out the first, would be the first one to die. After the lunch people used to visit their neighbours, to congratulate and enjoy together.

Objavio: danijela88 | Kolovoz 10, 2010

Dolazak Hrvata (Tuga i Buga)

(Marko Dragić)

Dojdoše iz priko Babinih gora Hervati najprvo u Dalmaciju i ove
sadanje hrvatske i slovinske strane, s mlogim bojem istiravši Abare, ovdi
se nastaniše. Prid ovim bijaše pet bratje: Kluka, Klobej, Kožočeš, Muklo,
Hrvat i dvi sestre: Tuga i Buga. I od njih Dalmacija, koja je od mora do
Dunava dosegla, hrvatsko ime prija, i zove se do današnjega dneva. –
Upade u turske ruke Peršija; Turci se odvojiše od oblasti rimskih
cesara.

Kraljica Buga

U Dučiću, u Prisoju, bila je gospodarica, neka Buga i po njoj je
nazvano Buško jezero i narod, mi ovde, Bužani. Tu u jezeru ima neka gradina, najprije da je rimska, ali sad se ne vidi. Kad je sušna godina
dobro se vidi. Veliki je to bijo grad i tu je bilo groblje, sićam se da sam
jednom vidila kad su te mrtve iskapali.
(Korita kod Tomislavgrada)

Kraljica Tuga

Daleko, daleko odakle pušu ladni vitrovi i snig vije, nalaze se
visoke gore, di su u davna vrimena stolovali naši pradidovi. To se gorje
zove Karpati. Naši su pradidovi čuli kako je toplo u krajevima blizu
sinjih vali, pa su pod vodstvom petero braće i dvi sestre krenili na dalek
put. Jedan od braće, najstariji zva se Hrvat, a sestre su bile Tuga i Buga.
Hrvat je ka najstariji brat bija snažan i jak i duž puta je branija svoj
narod od zviri i neprijatelja.
Tuga je bila divojka duge zlatne kose i crnih očiju. Govorilo se da
je biloj vili druga. Ona je svake večeri i jutra uveseljavala ljude svojom
pismom. Onda im je bilo lakše putovati kroz šume i nizine, dok nisu
napokon ugledali more. To je bila njihova nova domovina koju podilili
među sobon. Bilo je dvanaest plemena. I Tuga je dobila lip kraj, ravnicu
podno Mosora – Poljica. Ona je tu sagradila svoje dvore, a oko njena
dvora plemići su sagradili palače. I tako je nasta gradić koji su zvali
Tugini dvori, a danas se zovu Tugari. Bila je Tuga pobožna i dobra i
činila svima lipega. U Policin se nije smilo govorit ružno, ni svađat ili
štogod jedno drugom uzet. Svi su radili, trudili se i punu su kuću svega
imali. Svi su živili u jubavi.
A kad je Tuga umrla, svi su za njon plakali i nisu je Poljičani ni
dan danas zaboravili. Ona i danas zna, za misečine, u biloj haljini i duge plave kose proći priko ruševina svoga dvora u Tugarima bdijući nad
Pojičanima i Pojicama.

Objavio: danijela88 | Kolovoz 10, 2010

Priča o Čehu, Lehu i Mehu

(Marko Dragić)

U zemlji Hrvatskoj kako kažu stari kroničari, živjelo nekad davno
svo plemstvo slavensko.
Knezom im bijaše Hrvat stolujući u starom gradu Krapini.
Pokoravao se on rimskom caru i njegovom namjesniku u Hrvatskoj. U
dubokoj starosti umre knez i ostavi za sobom tri sina: Čeha, Leha i
Meha, te kći po imenu Vilina.
Sinovi uz Krapinu sagrade još dva grada – Psari i Šabac i vladaše
njima.
Doskora dozlogrdilo braći rimsko godpodarstvo pa odluče rimski
jaram zbaciti. Njihova se sestra zagledala u rimskog namjesnika te mu,
bojeći se za nj, ispriča što braća snuju.
Doznavši sestrinu izdaju, braća je uzidaju živu u toranj krapinskog
grada kojeg i danas nazivaju Vilinim tornjem.
Uvidjevši da se ne će moći obraniti od rimskog cara, odluče braća
poći na sjever.
Krenuše braća preko triju rijeka, put sjevera: Čeh utemelji Češku,
Leh osnuje Poljsku, a Meh Rusiju.

Objavio: danijela88 | Kolovoz 10, 2010

Iliri osnovali Vareš i Visoko

(Marko Dragić)

ILIRI OSNOVALI VAREŠ I VISOKO
Prema kazivanjima naših starih djedova i pradjedova prostor
Vareša prije nije bio nastanjen a ‘vamo na drugoj strani je postojalo
jedno pleme Ilira koje je u bijegu pred kugom i raznim nedaćama
krenulo u potragu za boljim mjestom. Tako su oni išli za jednom
zvijezdom, i putovali su samo noću, nisu putovali danju, tad’ su se
odmarali i dok je išla zvijezda toliko su i oni putovali, kad bi zvijezda
stala, stali bi i oni.
To se baš desilo na području naše planine Zvijezde, po tom’ je
ona i dobila ime. Kad je zvijezda stala na tom mjestu, od nje se otkinuo
jedan dio koji je sjao a njeg’ je uzeo kralj tog plemena. Oni su otad’
vjerovali u taj kamen, vjerovali da će im bit’ dobro sve dok njega imaju.
Napredovali su jer sve što im je trebalo kralj bi poželi i zazivaj uz pomoć tog kamena koji je svijetlio. A ustvari su oni imali i jednu zlatnu jabuku
koju su stavili na vrh kule pa im je ona služila k’o putokaz jer je davala
odsjaj od sunca po danu i od mjeseca u noći. Tu je zemlja bila plodna,
mogla se obrađivati, ljudi su mogli od svoga rada tu živjeti pa su tu
napravili i grad, zvao se Zvjezdan-grad.
Al’ zbog zavisti i ljubomore mitsko biće Huri koje je živjelo pod
zemljom, pusti jak vjetar koji istrgnu od kralja taj kamen te on pade u
podnožje planine. Kralj naravno naredi da se kamen nađe ali pošto Huri
pusti gustu maglu u podnožje Zvijezde, nisu ga mogli naći pa ga je odnio
sa sobom pod zemlju i došlo je do nji’ove propasti a legenda kaže da je
tada nastala nekakva kletva, jer se Huri krio s kamenom od kralja i da bi
bio sigurniji zavi on Zvijezdu u snijeg. Nije se moglo sijat’ više jer je bila
velika studen pa su oni morali pobjeć’ i selit se jer nisu imali više šta
jest’. Kako su silazili s Zvijezde tako su nastanjivali Vareš i Visoko. Kralj
je otiš’o u Visoko a neki su se samo spustili u Vareš ‘dje su isto tražili tog
Hurija i kopali zemlju i tako otkrili golema rudna bogatstva.

Objavio: danijela88 | Kolovoz 8, 2010

Narodni običaji (Hercegovina)

(originalni zapisi prema kazivanju)

Ženidbeni običaji

Prija bi se momci i cure upoznavali čuvajuć stoku il kod crkve na derneku. Ka se cura dopane momku on joj dolazijo na silo, na ćosanje. Obično bi dolazili momci utorkon, četrvtkon , suboton i nediljon naveče na silo a petkon bi išli udovci. Svaka cura za udaju jimala je u kući il u pojati sobu di bi joj momak na silo dolazijo.
Znali bi ćaća i mater da jim momci dolaze al bi momci opet bižali od nji da ji ne vide. A prija bi bilo vazda više momaka neg cura a ratovi bili išlo se radit u instranstvo. Vinčanja bi bila na sv. Katu a ‘zamiračina’ na Svi Svete na derneku na Brigu. I kad bi se nekon momku svidila cura on bi je nagazija nogon. A brak bi se sklapa ‘rakijon’ a bilo je i otmica.
Kad bi cura ošla s momkon a da mater i ćaća nisu znali. Ondan bi je on odveo u kuću od neki rođaka jer ne smi nevinčana u kuću.
Na ‘rakiju’ bi išli samo muškadija nosili bi ranu i piće a svekrva bi po njima poslala curi vune i tako to. Kad prosci naiđu ondan bi ukućani vrata zatvorili prid njima a ondan bi se oni ko putnici prestavili ka da traže konak da prinoće.
Ondan bi ji pustili u kuću pa bi starešina kaza domaćinu da su čuli da u nji ima neka cura za udaje a oni imaju momka za ženit se pa ako je curi draga volja nek dođe i jami biljeg.
Ondan bi domaćin naredijo da dovedu curu i ondan bi nevista izvodila jenu po jenu dok nebi prava došla. Ondan bi prosac izvadijo jabuku s paran i stavijo na siniju i kaže: Domaćine ja tražin tvoju ćer za mog sina i pitan u Boga sriću i blagoslov a u tebe tvoju ćer za moga sina. Ako je draga volja nek cura jami jabuku.
Ondan bi cura poljubila ćaću i mater i dala in jabuku i sila do starešine. Pa bi se veselilo do zore. Ondan kad bi pošli cura bi jim dala terluka i kanica. Sutra ujitra bi se išlo ‘na prsten’. Išli bi cura s braton i momak s ćaćon. Ondan petnes dana prija vinčanja momak bi pozivo svatove. Prija bi samo muškadija išla u svatove a išla je s njima i po jedna žena ‘enga’ mladoženjina sestra il rodbina. Išlo bi se na konjin i ogrnili bi se crvenon kabanicon.
Starešina je bijo stariji čovik, on bi naređiva ka se šta radi. Buljubaša bi išo na čelu i nosijo bi na kapi pero od pivca. Bijo je i barjektar , on bi nosijo zastavo i ondan kad bi došli u mlade on bi je stavijo na krov ili na drvo pa je neka neko ukrade ondan on plaća da je vrate.
Čauš je išo na kraj svatova nudijo pićen one koji bi prolazili i šalijo se. On je čuvo konja koji je nosijo ranu i piće koje se nosilo u mlade. Konj di je bilo ruvo bi ima na čelu ogledalo radi uroka. A ka bi išli po ruvo plaćo bi se otkup za ruvo a na sanduku bi sidila nevistina sestra i tražila pare za ključ o sanduka. U ruvu bi bila kudilja s vunom, ječerme, gunji i tako. Mladoženja nebi išo sa svatovin. Bijo bi u crkvi i ondan bi išo sam da dočeka svatove i sve da pripremi. A mlada bi kad bi izišla iz crkve stavila bilu krpu. I kad bi svatovi došli u mladoženje ondan bi ji dočekalo ‘kolo divojaka’.
Nevista bi dok je na konju pribacivala jabuku s param priko kuće ondan bi joj dali malo dite da ga dariva. Pa bi ondan išla mišat lonac i ostavila bi na njem jabuku s param, pa bi poljubila svekrvu. Posle večere ninala bi se jabuka, zakačili bi je na konac o gredu i zaljuljala bi se najprvo starom svatu da dariva mladence. Ondan kum kaže kolko je dao pa se jabuka ninala prema svim ostalim svatovim.
Uveče stari svat naredi da mladenci iđu na spavanje. Ondan i kum i diver odvedu u pojatu i poškrope vodon. Sutra ujitra mlada bi išla po kućan po selu di bi je darivali ranom, a kum i diver bi kupili kokoši po torovim. O ručku bi mlada davala poklone svatovim i ukućanim i oni bi nju darivali. Posli tog stari svati bi naredijo da se svatovi raziđu.

Objavio: danijela88 | Kolovoz 8, 2010

Narodni običaji (Hercegovina)

(originalni zapisi prema kazivanju)

Običaji za Badnjak i Božić

Na Badnji dan ujitra domaćin bi donosijo prid kuću badnjake. Ondan bi usiko iver od badnjaka i stavijo u njivu. Svaka kuća bi imala tri badnjaka, nji je domaćin unosijo u kuću govoreć: „Na dobro vam došlo Badnje veče“, a jedna od žena bi ga posipala žitom i prskala posvećenom vodon. Stavijo bi badnjake na ognjišće dva jedan do drugog a trećeg priko nji. Ondan bi na jedan uriza jaram pa bi posipo vinon i onon vrston žita za koju je tijo da mu dobro rodi te godine.
Na vatru od ti badnjaka bi se stavljalo peć zaoblica i božićna pogača. Oni badanjak di je jaram bijo čuvo se i palijo na Novu Godinu, a ovi šta su izgorili njijov pepeo bi se u njivu baca. Ujutra bi išli na misu. A ka bi se vratili s mise postavljo bi se ručak. Prvo se božićna pogača stavila a na nju sud sa žiton di bi bile tri sviće. Svića bi se palila na vatri od badnjaka i ondan bi se govorilo: „U dobar čas, u ime Isusovo, ka se užegla, užegla, ka se utrnula, utrnula. Sve nek bilo u ime Isusovo, u dobar čas.“
Posle jela sviće bi se gasile komadon pogače umočene u vino i govorilo bi se: „Kako se ova svića utrnula tako se zloća i opačina ugasila“. Taj komad bi se dava dici da ji ne boli grlo, kokošma da bolje nose il ovcan. A virovalo se da će prvi umrit oni koji stoji spram svići koja se prva utrne. Posli ručka išlo bi se u komšija na čestitanje i veselilo bi se.

Objavio: danijela88 | Kolovoz 8, 2010

Slavic Mythology

Slavic mythology is the mythological aspect of the polytheistic religion that was practiced by the Slavs prior to Christianisation.

The religion possesses numerous common traits with other religions descended from the Proto-Indo-European religion.

As various Slavic populations were Christianised between the 7th and 12th centuries, Christianity was introduced as a religion of the elite, flourishing mostly in cities and amongst the nobility. Amongst the rural majority of the medieval Slavic population, old myths remained strong. Christian priests and monks in Slavic countries, particularly in Russia, for centuries fought against the phenomenon called dvoeverie (double faith). On the one hand, peasants and farmers eagerly accepted baptism, masses and the new Christian holidays. On the other hand, they still persisted performing ancient rites and worshiping old pagan cults, even when the ancient deities and myths on which those were based were completely forgotten.

This was because, from a perspective of the Slavic peasant, Christianity was not a replacement of old Slavic mythology, but rather an addition to it. Christianity may have offered a hope of salvation, and of blissful afterlife in the next world, but for survival in this world, for yearly harvest and protection of cattle, the old religious system with its fertility rites, its protective deities, and its household spirits was taken to be necessary. This was a problem the Christian church never really solved; at best, it could offer a Christian saint or martyr to replace the pagan deity of a certain cult, but the cult itself thrived, as did the mythological view of the world through which natural phenomena were explained.

While folk beliefs and traditions of all Slavic peoples indeed are the richest resource for reconstructing the ancient pagan beliefs, these may very likely have lost their original mythology and sanctity. People entertained a vague idea that some festivals must be celebrated in a certain way, some stories must be told or some songs must be sung, merely in accordance with tradition. Cults of old deities were mixed with worship of new Christian saints, and old rituals blended among new Christian holidays.

This led scholars to analyse the structure of folklore itself, and to devise methodologies through which they could reconstruct the lost mythology from this structure. We can roughly divide the folklore accounts into two groups:

* Fairy tales about various fantastical characters and creatures such as Alkonost, Baba Yaga, Koschei the Deathless, Firebird, Zmey, songs and tales of legendary heroes such as Russian bogatyrs, and superstitions about various demons and spirits such as domovoi, likho, vilas, vampires, vodyanoy, rusalkas etc. Many of these tales and beliefs may be quite ancient, and probably contain at least some elements of old mythical structure, but they are not myths themselves. They lack a deeper, sacral meaning and religious significance, and furthermore they tend to vary greatly among various Slavic populations.

* Folk celebrations of various Christian festivals and popular beliefs in various saints. It is, for instance, quite clear that a popular saint in many Slavic countries, St Elijah the Thunderer, is a replacement of old thunder-god Perun. Likewise, traces of ancient deities can also be found in cults of many other saints, such as St Mary, St Vitus, St George, St Blaise and St Nicholas, and it is also obvious that various folk celebrations, such as the spring feast of Jare or Jurjevo and the summer feast of Ivanje or Ivan Kupala, both very loosely associated with Christian holidays, are abundant with pre-Christian elements. These beliefs have considerable religious and sacral significance to the people still performing them. The problem is, of course, that the elements of pre-Christian religion are hopelessly mixed into popular Christianity.

Reconstruction of original Slavic myths is thus a true detective work, requiring a considerable knowledge of various scientific disciplines such as semiotics, linguistics, philology, comparative mythology and ethnology. Folklore accounts must be analysed on level of structure, not merely as songs or stories, but as groups of signs and symbols which contain some internal structural logic. Each of these signs is composed of some key words, which are more than simply names of characters, places or artifacts. One important aspect of symbols is that they are almost impossible to change; while their names may be altered, their structure may not. Changing or losing of key words would result in a change of symbol, which would then invalidate the internal structural logic of a text and render the entire tale meaningless. It would then soon be forgotten, because the pattern, or logic, through which it was transmitted over generations would be lost.

For example: as already stated, the Slavic god of thunder, Perun, was mostly equated with St Elijah the Thunderer in Christian folklore. But he was also sometimes equated with St Michael, and sometimes even with the Christian God, whilst in some Russian or Belarusian folk stories, he was downgraded to various fairy characters such as Tsar Ogin (Tsar Flame) or Grom (Thunder). Notwithstanding changes in the name itself, there are always some key words present which were used to describe Perun as a symbol in ancient mythical texts, and have survived through folklore. Perun is always gore (up, above, high, on the top of the mountain or in heaven; Perun is a heavenly god, and he is also the ‘highest’ deity of old Slavic pantheon), he is suh (dry, as opposite of wet; he is god of thunder and lightning, which causes fire), he treska/razbija/goni/ubija (strikes/sunders/pursues/kills; he is a god of thunder and storms, destructive and furious) with strela/kamen/molnija (arrow/stone/lightning; Perun’s weapons, are of course, his bolts of lightning. He fires them as arrows which are so powerful they explode and blow up stones when they hit them). These key words are always preserved in folklore traces, even if the true name of Perun has been long since forgotten. Consequently, the structure of this symbol allowed the identification of Perun with similar characters either from Christian religion or from later folklore, which share these similarities in the structure of their own symbols.

Pantheon

As noted in the description of historical sources, a very wide range of deities was worshipped by Slavs, on a huge geographical area from the shores of the Baltic to the shores of the White Sea, in a time span of over 600 years. Historic sources also show that each Slavic tribe worshipped its own gods, and thus probably had its own pantheon. Overall, ancient Slavic religion seems to be fairly local and cultic in nature, with gods and beliefs varying from tribe to tribe. However, just as in the case of the various Slavic languages — it can be shown that they originate from a single, Proto-Slavic language — it is also possible to establish some sort of Proto-Slavic Olympus and, through careful study of folklore, reconstruct some elements of this original pantheon, from which the various gods of the various Slavic tribes originated.
[edit] Supreme god

There are various modern theories about the supreme Slavic deity being Rod or Svarog, and historic sources show that deities such as Svarožič, Svantevit or Triglav were worshipped as supreme by certain tribes. But overall, the best candidate for the position of supreme deity is by far Perun. His name is the most common in all historic records of Slavic religion; in fact, he is the first Slavic god mentioned in written history (Procopius in his short note mentions that the god of thunder and lightning is the only god of Slavs, lord of all). The Primary Chronicle identifies him as chief god of Kievan Rus prior to Christianisation. A short note in Helmold’s Chronica Slavorum states that West Slavs believe in a single deity in heaven who rules over all the other deities on earth; the name of this deity is not mentioned, but nevertheless it seems quite possible this was a reference to Perun. And even though we do not find the name of Perun in any of the extensive records of West Slavic religion, he was known by all branches of Slavs, as shown by a vast number of toponyms that still bear his name in all Slavic countries today. Finally, by analysing the folklore texts, one will notice that Perun is the only Slavic deity who was equated with the Christian God. These are very strong indications that Perun was indeed the supreme god of the original Proto-Slavic pantheon.

Perun, however, had a match. As Roman Jakobson pointed out, whenever Perun is mentioned in historic texts, he is always “accompanied” by another god, Veles. This relationship can be observed in toponyms as well. Wherever we find a hill or a mountain peak whose name can be associated with Perun, below it, in the lowlands, usually near a river, there will be a place with a name reminiscent of Veles. Consequently, as Perun was sometimes identified with the Сhristian God in folklore accounts, Veles was identified with the Devil.

Perun and Veles

Gromoviti znaci or thunder marks such as these were often engraved upon roof beams of houses to protect them from lightning bolts. Identical symbols were discovered on Proto-Slavic pottery of 4th century Chernyakhov culture. They are thought to be symbols of the supreme Slavic god of thunder, Perun.

Ivanov and Toporov reconstructed the ancient myth involving the two major gods of the Proto-Slavic pantheon, Perun and Veles. The two of them stand in opposition in almost every way. Perun is a heavenly god of thunder and lightning, fiery and dry, who rules the living world from his citadel high above, located on the top of the highest branch of the World Tree. Veles is a chthonic god associated with waters, earthly and wet, lord of the underworld, who rules the realm of the dead from down in the roots of the World Tree. Perun is a giver of rain to farmers, god of war and weapons, invoked by fighters. Veles is a god of cattle, protector of shepherds, associated with magic and commerce.

A cosmic battle fought between the two of them echoes the ancient Indo-European myth of a fight between a storm god and a dragon. Attacking with his lightning bolts from the sky, Perun pursues his serpentine enemy Veles, who slithers down over the earth. Veles taunts Perun and flees, transforming himself into various animals, hiding behind trees, houses, or people. In the end, he is killed by Perun, or he flees into the water, into the underworld. This is basically the same thing; by killing Veles, Perun does not actually destroy him, but simply returns him to his place in the world of the dead. Thus the order of the world, disrupted by Veles’s mischief, is established once again by Perun. The idea that storms and thunder are actually a divine battle between the supreme god and his arch-enemy was extremely important to Slavs, and continued to thrive long after Perun and Veles were replaced by the Сhristian God and Devil. A lightning bolt striking down a tree or burning down a peasant’s house was always explained through the belief of a raging heavenly deity bashing down on his earthly, underworldly, enemy.

The enmity of the two gods was explained by Veles’ theft of Perun’s cattle, or by Perun’s theft of Veles’ cattle (since Veles was the god of cattle, the matter of ownership here is not clear). The motif of stealing divine cattle is also a common one in Indo-European mythology; the cattle in fact may be understood simply as a metaphor for heavenly water or rain. Thus, Veles steals rain water from Perun, or Perun steals water for rain from Veles (again, since Veles is associated with waters, and Perun with sky and clouds, it is unclear to whom rain should belong). An additional reason for this enmity may be wife-theft. From folklore accounts it seems that the Sun was sometimes considered to be Perun’s wife (an odd idea, as all Slavic sun-gods, like Hors and Dažbog, are male). However, since the Sun, in the mythic view of the world, dies every evening, as it descends beyond the horizon and into the underworld where it spends the night, this was understood by Slavs as Veles’ theft of Perun’s wife (but again, the rebirth of the Sun in the morning could also be understood as Perun’s theft of Veles’ wife).

Jarilo and Morana

Burning of Marzanna as a symbol of winter during the spring equinox is one of remains of pre-Christian beliefs in Polish culture

Katicic and Belaj continued down the path laid by Ivanov and Toporov and reconstructed the myth revolving around the fertility and vegetation god, Jarilo, and his sister and wife, Morana, goddess of nature and death. Jarilo is associated with the Moon and Morana is considered a daughter of the Sun. Both of them are children of Perun, born on the night of the new year (Great Night). However, on the same night, Jarilo is snatched from the cradle and taken to the underworld, where Veles raises him as his own. At the Spring festival of Jare/Jurjevo, Jarilo returns from the world of the dead (from across the sea), bringing spring from the ever-green underworld into the realm of the living. He meets his sister Morana and courts her. At the beginning of summer, the festival later known as Ivanje/Ivan Kupala celebrated their divine wedding. The sacred union between brother and sister, children of the supreme god, brings fertility and abundance to earth, ensuring a bountiful harvest. Also, since Jarilo is the (step)son of Veles, and his wife the daughter of Perun, their marriage brings peace between two great gods; in other words, it ensures there will be no storms which could damage the harvest.

After the harvest, however, Jarilo is unfaitfhul to his wife, and she vengefully slays him (returns him into the underworld), renewing the enmity between Perun and Veles. Without her husband, god of fertility and vegetation, Morana — and all of nature with her — withers and freezes in the upcoming winter; she turns into a terrible, old, and dangerous goddess of darkness and frost, and eventually dies by the end of the year. The whole myth would repeat itself anew each following year, and retelling of its key parts was accompanied by the major yearly festivals of the Slavic calendar. The story also shows numerous parallels to similar myths of Baltic and Hittite mythology.

Svarog, Svarožič, Dažbog

The name of Svarog is found only in East Slavic manuscripts, where it is usually equated with the Greek smith god Hephaestus. However, the name is very ancient, indicating that Svarog was a deity of the Proto-Slavic pantheon. The root svar means bright, clear, and the suffix -og denotes a place. Comparison with Vedic Svarga indicates that Svarog simply meant (daylight) sky. It is possible he was the original sky god of the pantheon, perhaps a Slavic version of Proto-Indo-European *Dyēus Ph2ter. Svarog can be also understood as meaning a shining, fiery place; a forge. This, and identification with Hephaestus from historic sources, indicates he was also a god of fire and blacksmithing. According to the interpretation by Ivanov and Toporov, Svarog had two sons: Svarožič, who represented fire on earth, and Dažbog, who represented fire in the sky and was associated with the Sun. Svarog was believed to have forged the Sun and have given it to his son Dažbog to carry it across the sky.

In Russian manuscripts he is equated with the Sun, and folklore remembers him as a benevolent deity of light and sky. Serbian folklore, however, presents a far darker picture of him; he is remembered as Dabog, a frightful and lame deity guarding the doors of the underworld, associated with mining and precious metals. Veselin Čajkanović pointed out that these two aspects fit quite nicely into the symbolism of the Slavic solar deity; a benevolent side represents Dažbog during the day, when he carries the Sun across the sky. The malevolent and ugly Dabog carries the Sun through the underworld at night. This pattern can also be applied to the Sun’s yearly cycle; a benevolent aspect is associated with the young summer Sun, and a malevolent one with the old winter Sun.

Svarožič was worshipped as a fire spirit by Russian peasants well after Christianisation. He was also known amongst Western Slavs, but there he was worshipped as a supreme deity in the holy city of Radegast. Svarožič is simply a diminutive of Svarog’s name, and thus it may simply be another aspect (a surname, so to speak) of Dažbog. There is also the point of view that Svarog was the ancestor of all other Slavic gods, and thus Svarožič could simply be an epithet of any other deity, so that Dažbog, Perun, Veles, and so on, were possibly all Svarožičs.

Svantevit and Triglav

It is somewhat ironic that for now we cannot clearly determine the position of these two gods in the Proto-Slavic pantheon, yet we have the most extensive historic accounts written about them. That they were important to all pagan Slavs is indicated by a significant number of toponyms whose names can be associated with them and by discoveries of multi-headed statues in various Slavic lands. Both of these gods were considered supreme in various locations; they were associated with divination and symbolized by the horse. A possibly significant difference is that Svantevit had a white horse whilst Triglav had a black one, and Svantevit was represented with four heads whilst Triglav (whose name simply means three-headed) with three. Svantevit was also associated with victory in war, harvest, and commerce.

Various hypotheses about them were proposed: that they are in fact one and the same deity, being somewhat similar; that they are not gods at all but compounds of three or four gods, a kind of mini-pantheons. Slavic neopagans tend to think of Triglav in particular as a concept of Trinity. Svantevit has also been proclaimed as a late West Slavic alternation of Perun or Jarilo, or compared with Svarožič and deemed a solar deity. None of these hypotheses is quite satisfactory, and mostly they are just wild speculation, another attempt to reconstruct Slavic mythology as it should be, rather than discovering what it really was like. Further research is necessary before more can be said of these deities.

It is claimed that Slovenia’s highest mountain, Triglav, is named after the god Triglav.

Zorica and Danica

These names mean simply Dawn and Daystar, but in folklore accounts of all Slavic nations, they are often described as persons, or associated with persons, in pretty much the same way as Sun and Moon. Danica is often called Sun’s younger sister or daughter, and was probably associated with Morana. Consequently, Zorica was either Sun’s mother or older sister. It is quite possible this was a Slavic relic of the Proto-Indo-European dawn god.

Further developments

Ivanov and Toporov also schematically periodised various stages of development of Slavic mythology, attempting to show how it evolved from the original pantheon:

* The first subsequent development occurred after the Proto-Slavs had split into East, West, and South Slavs. Each branch of the Slavic family devised various feminine deities of household (e.g. Mokosh), and deities associated with crafts, agriculture, and fertility (e.g. Rod and Chur). Deities such as Hors and Simargl are sometimes interpreted as the East Slavic borrowings from their Iranian neighbours.

Baba Yaga, by Ivan Bilibin.

* At the level of abstract personification of divine functions, we have such concepts as Pravda/Krivda (Right/Wrong), Dobra Kob/Zla Kob (Good Fortune/Evil Fortune). These concepts, found in many Slavic fairy tales, are presumed to have originated at a time when old myths were already being downgraded to the level of legends and stories. Loius Leger pointed out that various Slavic words describing success, destiny, or fortune are all connected with the ancient Slavic word for God — “bog”. Although used to denote the God of Christianity, the word is of pagan origin and quite ancient. It originates from the Proto-Indo-European root *bhag (meaning fortune), being cognate to Avestic baga and Sanskrit bhagah (epithets of deities).

* The next level of development is a mythologisation of historical traditions. Beginning in pagan times, it continued well after the advent of Сhristianity. It is characterised by tales and songs of legendary heroes, ranging from purely legendary founders of certain tribes, such as the stories about Lech, Czech, and Rus, to quite historical persons such as the 15th century Croatian-Hungarian king Matthias Corvinus or the Serbian Prince Marko, who were both immortalised in folk legend or poetry. Russian bylinas about bogatyrs, Polish legends of Krak the Dragonslayer, Czech legends about Libuše, and the foundation of Prague all fall into this category. Various elements of these tales will still reveal elements of old myths (such as a hero slaying a dragon, a faint echo of an ancient concept of a cosmic battle between Perun the Thunderer and the serpentine Veles).

* On an even lower level, certain mythical archetypes evolved into fairy-tale characters. These include Baba Yaga, Koschei the Immortal, Nightingale the Robber, Vodyanoy, Zmey Gorynych, and so on. At this point of development, one can hardly speak of mythology anymore. Rather, these are legends and stories which contain some fragments of old myths, but their structure and meaning are not so clear.

* The lowest level of development of Slavic mythology includes various groups of home or nature spirits and magical creatures, which vary greatly amongst different Slavic nations. Mythic structure on this level is practically incomprehensible, but some of the beliefs nevertheless have a great antiquity. As early as the 5th century, Procopius mentioned that Slavs worshipped river and nature spirits, and traces of such beliefs can still be recognised in the tales about vilas, vampires, witches, and werewolves.

Objavio: danijela88 | Kolovoz 8, 2010

Svarog

Objavio: danijela88 | Kolovoz 8, 2010

Slavenska mitologija

Slavenska mitologija i slavenska religija razvijale su se kroz otprilike 3,000 godina. Pretpostavlja se da neki njeni dijelovi dolaze iz neolitika, ili čak mezolitika. Ova religija posjeduje brojne zajedničke značajke s ostalim religijama koje su potekle od protoindoeuropske religije.

Postoje brojne današnje teorije o vrhovnom bogu Slavena, poput Roda ili Svaroga, te povijesni izvori kako su neka plemena štovala Svarožića, Svantevida ili Triglava kao svoje vrhovno božanstvo. No, najboljim se kandidatom za ovo mjesto smatra Perun. Njegovo je ima najčešće spominjano u svim povijesnim zapisima slavenske religije; zapravo, Perun je prvi slavenski bog ikada spomenut u zapisanoj povijesti (Prokopije spominje kako je bog groma i munje jedini bog Slavena, bog svega). Povijest prošlih godina spominje ga kao vrhovnog boga kijevskih Rusa prije kristijanizacije. Kratka bilješka u Helmoldovom djelu Chronica Slavorum tvrdi kako zapadni Slaveni vjeruju u jedinstvenog boga koji vlada nad svim ostalim božanstvima: ime ovog boga nije spomenuto, no otvorena je mogućnost kako je Helmold mislio upravo na Peruna. Iako ne pronalazimo Perunovo ime u nijednom većem zapisu zapadnih Slavena, bio je poznat svim granama Slavena, što se da zaključiti prema velikom broju toponima koji i danas nose njegovo ime u raznim slavenskim zemljama. Naposljetku, analizirajući folklorne tekstove, da se zaključiti kako je Perun jedino slavensko božanstvo koje je izjednačeno s kršćanskim Bogom. Ovo su snažni pokazatelji kako je Perun zapravo bio vrhovni bog originalnog protoslavenskog panteona.

Perun je, doduše, imao svog dvojnika. Kao što je to Roman Jakobson istaknuo, u svakom spominjanju Peruna kroz povijesne zapise, spominje se još jedan bog, Veles. Ova povezanost očita je i kod promatranja toponima. Kada pronađemo brdo ili planinski vrhunac u čijem se imenu nazire povezanost s Perunovim imenom, ispod njega, u nizinama, obično u blizini rijeke, postojat će mjesto čije je ime povezano s Velesom. Nadalje, kako je Perun u narodu ponekad poistovjećivan s Bogom, Veles je poistovjećivan sa Sotonom.

Perun i Veles
Gromoviti znaci, drevni Perunovi simboli, često izdjelani, nacrtani ili ugravirani na krovovima kuća, posebice u istočnoslavenskim narodima, da bi zaštitili ljude od gromova.

Ivanov i Toporov rekonstruirali su drevni mit koji je uključivao dva velika boga protoslavenskog panteona, Peruna i Velesa. Njih su dvoje suprotni jedan drugom u gotovo svakom pogledu. Perun je nebeski bog groma i munje, vatrenog i suhog, koji vlada živim svijetom iz svoje utvrde visoko iznad, koja se nalazi na najvišoj grani Svjetskog drveta. Veles je podzemni bog povezan s vodom, zemljom i vlagom, kralj podzemlja, koji vlada carstvom mrtvih iz korijenja Svjetskog drveta. Perun je davatelj kiše zemljoradnicima, bog rata i oružja, zazvan od strane boraca. Veles je bog stoke, zaštitnik pastira, povezan s magijom i trgovinom.

Svemirska borba između njih dvoje odzvanja drevnim indoeuropskim mitom o borbi između gromovitog boga i zmaja. Napadajući ga munjama i gromovima s nebesa, Perun proganja svog zmijolikog neprijatelja Velesa koji klizi nad zemljom. Veles izaziva Peruna i bježi, pretvarajući se pritom u razne životinje, skrivajući se iza drveća, kuća, ili ljudi. Naposljetku, Perun ga ubija, ili Veles bježi u vodu, u podzemni svijet. Ubivši Velesa, Perun ga ne uništava, već ga jednostavno vraća natrag na njegovo mjesto u svijetu mrtvih. Zato je mir u svijetu, poremećen Velesovim nedaćama, ponovo uspostavljen od strane Peruna. Ideja o gromu i munjama koji su zapravo božanska borba između vrhovnog boga i njegovog zakletog neprijatelja Slavenima je bila veoma važna, i nastavila je postojati kao uvjerenja dugo nakon što su Perun i Veles zamijenjeni Bogom i Sotonom. Grom koji je udario u drvo ili u kuću seljaka koju bi naposljetku i spalio objašnjavan je kroz uvjerenje o vrhovnom božanstvu koje napada svog zemaljskog, podzemnog, neprijatelja.

Neprijateljstvo između ova dva boga objašnjavana je također kroz Velesovu krađu Perunove stoke, ili Perunove krađe Velesove stoke (pošto je Veles bio bog stoke, vlasništvo nad istom upitno je). Motiv iza krađe božanske stoke čest je u indoeuropskoj mitologiji; stoka se zapravo može protumačiti kao metafora za nebesku vodu ili kišu. Pa tako Veles krade kišnicu od Peruna, ili Perun krade Velesovu vodu radi stvaranja kiše (opet, pošto je Veles povezan s vodama, a Perun s nebom i oblacima, nejasno je kome pripada kiša). Još jedan razlog neprijateljstva mogla bi biti i krađa žene. Kroz priče naroda postaje jasno kako je Sunce smatrano Perunovom ženom. Ipak, Sunce, prema mitskom pogledu na svijet, umire svake večeri kada utone iza obzora u podzemlje, gdje provodi noć, što su Slaveni objasnili kao Velesovu krađu Perunove žene (no, istovremeno, ponovo rađanje Sunca u zoru može se protumačiti kao Perunova krađa Velesove žene).

Jarilo i Morana

Kačić i Belaj nastavili su putem Ivanova i Toparova te rekonstruirali mit koji uključuje boga plodnosti i vegetacije, Jarila, te njegovu sestru i ženu Moranu, žensko božanstvo prirode i smrti. Jarila se povezuje s Mjesecom, dok je Morana smatrana kćerkom Sunca. Oboje su djeca Perunova, rođeni u noći nove godine. Ipak, iste večeri, Jarilo je ukraden iz kolijevke i odveden u podzemni svijet, gdje ga Veles odgaja kao svog sina. Tijekom Jurjeva, proljetnog festivala, Jarilo se vraća iz svijeta mrtvih, noseći proljeće iz vazdazelenog podzemlja u svijet živih. Tada susreće svoju sestru Moranu i udvara joj se. Na početku ljeta, Kupalo slavi njihovo božansko vjenčanje. Sveta zajednica brata i sestre, djece vrhovnog boga, donosi plodnost i izobilje, osiguravajući bogatu žetvu. Istovremeno, kako je Jarilo Velesov posinak, a njegova žena kćer Perunova, ovaj brak donosi mir među dva velika boga; drugim riječima, osigurava kako neće biti oluja koje bi mogle naštetiti žetvi.

Ipak, nakon žetve, Jarilo postaje nevjeran prema svojoj ženi, te ga ona iz osvete ubija (vraća ga natrag u podzemni svijet), oživljavajući neprijateljstvo između Peruna i Velesa. Bez njenog muža, boga plodnosti i vegetacije, Morana – i čitava priroda – vene i smrzava se tijekom nadolazeće zime; Morana postaje stara, užasna i opasna božica tame i leda, i naposljetku umire na kraju godine. Čitav se mit ponavlja svake godine, a prepričavanje njegovih ključnih dijelova pratilo je sve veće godišnje festivale slavenskog kalendara.

Svarog, Svarožić, Dažbog

Ime Svaroga pronađeno je samo u istočnoslavenskim spisima, gdje je obično ravnan s grčkim kovačem, bogom Hefestom. Ipak, ime je veoma staro, što pokazuje kako je Svarog bio božanstvo protoslavenskog panteona. Korijen imena, svar, znači bistro, jasno, dok sufiks –og označava mjesto. Pri usporedbi sa Svargom, Svarog jednostavno označava (danje) nebo. Moguće je da je Svarog prvotni nebeski bog panteona, slavenska verzija protoindoeuropskog *Dyēus Ph2ter. Svarog se isto tako može protumačiti kao sjajno, vatreno mjesto; kovačnicu. Ovo, kao i njegovo poistovjećivanje s grčkim bogom Hefestom označava njegovu povezanost s vatrom i kovanjem. Prema tumačenjima Ivanova i Toparova, Svarog je imao dva sina: Svarožića, koji je predstavljao vatru na zemlji, i Dažboga, koji je predstavljao vatru na nebu i bio povezan sa Suncem. Smatra se kako je Svarog iskovao Sunce i dao ga svom sinu Dažbogu da ga nosi preko neba.

U ruskim zapisima poistovjećen je sa Suncem, i folklor ga se prisjeća kao dobroćudno božanstvo svjetlosti i neba. Srpski folklor, pak, predstavlja mnogo mračniju sliku; zapamćen je kao Dabog, zastrašujuće i šepavo božanstvo koje je čuvalo vrata podzemlja, povezano s rudarstvom i dragim metalima. Veselin Čajković istaknuo je kako ova dva gledišta zapravo odlično objedinjuju slavenski simbolizam solarnog božanstva; dobroćudna strana predstavlja Dažboga tijekom dana, kada nosi Sunce preko neba. Zastrašujući i neugledni Dabog vodi Sunce kroz podzemlje tijekom noći. Ovaj se uzorak može prenijeti i na Sunčev godišnji ciklus; dobroćudno gledište povezano je s mladim, ljetnim Suncem, dok je zlonamjerno gledište povezano sa zimskim Suncem.

Svarožić je štovan kao vatreni duh od strane ruskih seljaka čak i nakon kristijanizacije. Bio je također poznat među zapadnim Slavenima, no tamo je štovan kao vrhovno božanstvo u svetom gradu Radagestu. Svarožić je jednostavno deminutiv Svarogova imena, i kao takav možda je samo još jedan aspekt Dažboga. Također postoji gledište kako je Svarog predak svih slavenskih bogova, te da je Svarožić zapravo epitet svim ostalim božanstvima, pa su tako Dažbog, Perun i Veles mogući Svarožići.

Svantevid i Triglav

Ironično je kako se ne može jasno razlučiti položaj spomenuta dva boga u protoslavenskom panteonu, iako je o njima najviše zapisano. Lako se da zaključiti kako su igrali važnu ulogu svim poganskim Slavenima po značajnom broju toponima čija se imena povezuju s imenim ovih bogova, te po otkrićima višeglavih statua u raznim slavenskim zemljama. Oba se se boga smatrala vrhovnima na raznim područjima; povezivani su s divljenjem i simbolizirao ih je konj. Moguća značajna razlika među njih dvoje jest ta da je Svantevid imao bijelog konja, dok je Triglav imao crnog, te je Svantevid predstavljan s četiri glave dok je Triglav (kao što mu i samo ime govori) s tri glave. Svantevid je isto tako bio povezan s ratnim pobjedama, žetvom i trgovinom.

Pretpostavljene su mnoge hipoteze o njima: da su zapravo jedno božanstvo, s nekim sličnostima; da zapravo nisu bili jedinstveno božanstvo već dijelovi triju ili četiriju različitih bogova, poput mini-panteona. Slavenski neopogani smatraju kako je upravo Triglav predstavljao Sveto Trojstvo. Svantevid je isto tako bio proglašen kasnim zapadnoslavenskim Perunom ili Jarilom, ili uspoređivan s Svarožićem kao solarno božanstvo. Nijedna od navedenih hipoteza nije poptuno zadovoljavajuća, te su većina samo nagađanja (još jedan pokušaj rekonstruiranja slavenske mitologije kakva bi trebala biti, umjesto otkrivanja kakva je zapravo bila).

Zora i Danica

Iako njihova imena predstavljaju normalne prirodne pojave u okolini, u svim slavenskim narodima opisivalo ih se kao osobe, ili povezivalo s osobama, na sličan način kao što je to učinjeno sa Suncem i Mjesecom. Danica (mitologija) je često nazivana Sunčevom mlađom sestrom ili kćerkom, i vjerojatno je povezivana s Moranom. Isto tako, Zora (mitologija) je smatrana Sunčevom majkom ili starijom sestrom.

Popis slavenskih božanstava

* Bjelobog, rekonstruirani svijetli bog, upitnog postojanja
* Černobog (Crnobog), bog tame, zla i nesreće
* Dabog (Daždbog, Daba), bog sunca, kiše
* Danica, personifikacija istoimene zvijezde
* Davor (Rugovit), sedmoglavi bog rata
* Drinus, bog rijeke Drine
* Dzidzilelya, poljska boginja djece
* Hors, bog sunca
* Jarilo, bog proljeća
* Jarovit (Gerovit), bog rata
* Kupalo, boginja uroda, obilja i veselja
* Lada, boginja ljubavi, ljepote i proljeća, usporedi: Afrodita
* Morana, boginja smrti i zime
* Nia-Nya, poljska boginja smrti
* Pagod, bog lijepog vremena
* Perun, bog gromovnik i zaštitnik pravde, vladar neba, usporedi: Zeus
* Perunika (Perperuna, Dodola), braniteljica pravednosti u braku
* Pikutik, bog mrtvih
* Radogost, bog gostoprimstva
* Semenik (Karas), bog jela i pića
* Slava, boginja časti, junaštva, slave i pobjede, usporedi: Nika
* Stribog (Stribor), bog vjetra i šume
* Svarog (Svarun), stvoritelj svijeta, prvi bog sunca
* Svarožić, bog svjetlosti, sunca i topline
* Svantevid (Svetovid), četveroglavi bog rata i proricanja
* Triglav, troglavi bog
* Veles (Volos, Voloh), bog zemlje, ratarstva, zaštitnik pastira, ali također i voda i podzemlja, prijevare, Perunov protivnik, ratnički bog (općenito štovano božanstvo)
* Vesna, boginja mladosti, proljetne radosti i bujnosti
* Vida, zaštitnica bračne sloge, usporedi: Hera
* Vodan (Vodna), bog voda, rijeka i mora, usporedi: Posejdon
* Voloska, zaštitnica kućnog ognjišta i doma
* Zermagla, boginja zime
* Zimstrla, boginja protivnica zime, družica Pagoda
* Zora, personifikacija zore.
* Živa i Žibog, božanstva života i plodnosti

Druga nadnaravna bića

* Banik, duh saune
* Domovoj, kućni duh
* Kikimora, zao kućni duh
* Lešij, šumski duh
* Pokola, zloduh podzemlja
* Rusalke, ćudljive šumske i vodene vile
* Vampir, povratnik iz mrtvih koji se hrani ljudskom krvlju
* Vodanoj, vodeni demon
* Vodenjak, vodeni duh

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